- Administrative Policy 3-19 Lockout / Tagout Program
Administrative Policy 3-19 Lockout / Tagout Program
SUBJECT: Lockout/ Tagout Program
PURPOSE: The purpose of a lockout/ tagout program is to prevent injury to personnel during maintenance or repair of installed machinery or equipment due to improper isolation from its energy source(s), inadvertent activation by other personnel during maintenance or repair, or release of latent or stored energy in the machinery or equipment.
APPLICATION: This policy applies for all maintenance, repair, or servicing of all installed machinery and equipment maintained by City of Lawton employees. It does not apply to mobile equipment or electrical equipment that may be unplugged and the employee working on the equipment maintains control of the electrical plug while working on the equipment.
The policy was written mainly for Wastewater Treatment Plant and Water Treatment Plant maintenance employees and Building Maintenance personnel. However, it should be reviewed by all departments and divisions and applied as appropriate.
Affected employee: An employee whose job requires him/her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout or tagout, or whose job requires him/her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed.
Authorized employee: A person who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform maintenance or repair on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes an authorized employee when that employee’ s duties include performing servicing or maintenance covered under this policy.
Capable of being locked out: An energy isolating device is capable of being locked out if it has a hasp or other means of attachment to which, or through which, a lock can be affixed, or it has a locking mechanism built into it. Other energy isolating devices are capable of being locked out, if lockout can be achieved without the need to dismantle, rebuild, or replace the energy isolating device or permanently alter its energy control capability.
Energized: Connected to an energy source or containing residual or stored energy.
Energy isolating device: A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy, including but not limited to the following: A manually operated electrical circuit breaker; a disconnect switch; a manually operated switch by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from all ungrounded supply conductors, and, in addition, no pole can be operated independently; a line valve; a block; and any similar device used to block or isolate energy. Push buttons, selector switches, and other control circuit type devices are not energy isolating devices.
Energy source: Any source of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or other energy.
Lockout: The placement of a lockout device on an energy isolating device, in accordance with established procedures, ensuring that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed.
Lockout device: A device that utilizes a positive means, such as a lock, either key or combination type to hold an energy isolating device in a safe position and prevents energizing of a machine or equipment. Included are blank flanges and bolted slip blinds.
Repair or maintenance: Workplace activities such as constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, and maintaining and/or servicing machines or equipment. These activities include lubrication, cleaning or unjamming of machines or equipment and making adjustments, where the employee may be exposed to the unexpected energization or startup of the equipment or release of hazardous energy.
Tagout: The placement of a tagout device on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, to indicate that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed.
Tagout device: A prominent warning device, such as a tag and a means of attachment, which can be securely fastened to an energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed.
1. Written lockout/ tagout procedures must be available and used by City employees whenever they work on installed machinery or equipment. If all of the following elements or characteristics apply to the equipment or machinery being repaired or maintained, the general lockout/ tagout procedures contained in Exhibit # 1 to this policy may be used.
a. The machine or equipment has no potential for stored or residual energy or re-accumulation of stored energy after shut down which could endanger employees;
b. The machine or equipment has a single energy source which can be readily identified and isolated;
c. The isolation and locking out of that energy source will completely de-energize and de-activate the machine or equipment;
d. The machine or equipment is isolated from that energy source and locked out during servicing or maintenance;
e. A single lockout device will achieve a locked-out condition;
f. The lockout device is under the exclusive control of the authorized employee performing the repair or maintenance;
g. The servicing of maintenance does not create hazards for other employees; and
h. There has been no accidents involving the unexpected activation or re-energizing of the machine or equipment during repair or maintenance.
2. If even one of these characteristics does not apply to the machinery or equipment in question, division supervisors must develop and implement detailed written lockout/tagout procedures specific to the machine or equipment in a format similar to that contained in Exhibit #2 to this policy.
3. General principles:
a. In general, the purpose of lockout/tagout procedures is to isolate equipment or machinery that is being repaired or maintained from all energy sources to prevent unexpected activation, startup or other release of energy that could cause injury to employees.
b. Energy sources may be electrical, hydraulic, steam, pneumatic, thermal, gravity, etc. or a combination of energy sources in one machine or piece of equipment. Some methods to isolate or neutralize the energy that may be contained in a machine or equipment include: pipe valves may be turned off and isolating and locking devices installed to prevent opening of the valves or blind flanges may be installed to prevent the flow of air, steam, water, or other liquid or gas to the equipment or machine being isolated; electrical energy may be locked out at the breaker switch; latent energy in capacitors or other components may be bled to ground. If heavy machinery components may shift, cycle, or fall due to gravity, blocks or jacks may be used to hold them in place.
4. Lockout/tagout and isolating devices and materials;
a. Each division will be responsible for providing the required materials and hardware necessary for isolating, securing, or blocking assigned machinery and equipment maintained by their employees. These may include locks, tags, chains, wedges, key blocks, adapter pins, self-locking fasteners, or other hardware.
b. lockout/tagout devices shall be singularly identified; shall be the only device(s) used for controlling energy; and shall not be used for any other purposes.
c. Lockout/tagout devices must be durable; capable of withstanding the environment to which they are exposed for the maximum period of time that exposure is expected. Tagout devices shall be constructed and printed so that exposure to weather condition or wet and damp location will not cause the tag to deteriorate or the message on the tag to become illegible.
d. Lockout and tagout devices shall be standardized within the division in at least one of the following criteria: color; shape; or size; and, in the case of tagout devices, print and format shall be standardized.
e. Lockout devices shall be substantial enough to prevent removal without the use of excessive force or unusual techniques, such as with the use of bolt cutters or other metal cutting tools.
f. Tagout devices, including their means of attachment, shall be substantial enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal. Tagout device attachment means shall be of a non-reusable type, attached by hand, self-locking, and non-releasable with a minimum unlocking strength of no less than 50 pounds and having the general design and basic characteristics of being at least equivalent to a one-piece, all-environment-tolerant nylon cable tie.
g. Lockout devices and tagout devices shall indicate the identity of the employee applying the device(s).
h. Tagout devices shall warn against hazardous conditions if the machine or equipment is energized and shall include a legend such as the following: DO NOT START, DO NOT OPEN, DO NOT CLOSE, DO NOT ENERGIZE, DO NOT OPERATE.
5. Guidelines for equipment or machines that are not capable of being locked out from energy sources or tagout provides adequate employee protection:
a. If an energy isolating device is not capable of being locked out, the specific lockout/tagout procedures will require tagout only.
b. If an energy isolating device is capable of being locked out, the lockout/tagout procedures will specify lockout will be used unless the division can demonstrate that the utilization of a tagout system will provide full employee protection.
c. Whenever replacement or major repair, renovation or modification of a machine or equipment is performed, and whenever new machines or equipment are installed, energy isolating devices for such machines or equipment shall be designed to accept a lockout device.
d. When a tagout device is used on an energy isolating device which is capable of being locked out, the tagout device shall be attached at the same location that the lockout device would have been attached, and the division shall demonstrate that the tagout procedures will provide a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by using a lockout procedure.
e. In demonstrating that a level of safety is achieved in the tagout procedures which is equivalent to the level of safety obtained by using lockout procedures, the division must demonstrate full compliance with all tag-out related provisions of this policy together with such additional elements as are necessary to provide the equivalent safety available from the use of a lockout device. Additional means to be considered as part of the tagout procedures shall include the implementation of additional safety measures such as the removal of an isolating circuit element, blocking of a controlling switch, opening of an extra disconnecting device, or the removal of a valve handle to reduce the likelihood of inadvertent energization.
6. Steps to be addressed in Lockout/ Tagout procedures:
a. Energy Isolation. Lockout or tagout shall be performed only by the authorized employee(s) performing repair or maintenance on the machine or equipment.
b. Notification of Employees: Affected employees shall be notified by the authorized employee or his supervisor of the application and removal of lockout or tagout devices on specific machines or equipment. Notification shall be given before the controls are applied, and after they are removed.
c. Preparation for Shutdown: Before an authorized employee turns off a machine or equipment, the authorized employee shall have knowledge of the type and magnitude of the energy, the hazards of the energy to be controlled and the means or methods to control the energy.
d. Machine or Equipment Shutdown: The machine or equipment shall be turned off or shut down using the procedures established for the machine or the equipment. An orderly shutdown must be utilized to avoid any additional or increased hazards to employees as a result of equipment stoppage.
e. Machine or Equipment Isolation: All energy isolating devices that are needed to control the energy to the machine or equipment shall be physically located and operated in such a manner as to isolate the machine or equipment from the energy source(s).
f. Lockout or Tagout Device Application: Lockout or tagout devices shall be affixed to each energy isolating device by authorized personnel.
i. Lockout devices shall be affixed in such a manner as to hold the energy isolating devices in a “safe” or “off” position.
ii. Tagout devices shall be affixed in such a manner as will clearly indicate that the operation or movement of energy isolating devices from the “safe” or “off” position is prohibited.
iii. Tagout devices shall be attached to the energy isolating devices if possible.
iv. If a tagout device cannot be attached directly to the energy isolating device, the tag shall be located as close as safely possible to the device, in a position that will be immediately obvious to anyone attempting to operate the device.
g. Stored Energy: Following the application of lockout or tagout devices to energy isolating devices, all potentially hazardous stored or residual energy shall be relieved, disconnected, restrained, and otherwise rendered safe. If there is a possibility of re-accumulation of stored energy to a hazardous level, verification of isolation shall be continued until the servicing or maintenance is completed, or until the possibility of such accumulation no longer exists.
h. Verification of Isolation: Prior to starting work on machines or equipment that have been locked and tagged out, the authorized employee shall verify that isolation and de-energizing of the machine or equipment has been accomplished.
i. Release from Lockout/Tagout: Before lockout/tagout devices are removed and energy is restored to the machine or equipment, the authorized employee(s) must inspect the work area and ensure that nonessential items have been removed and that the machine or equipment components are operationally intact and ensure that all other employees have been safely positioned or removed from the work area.
j. Lockout/Tagout Device Removal: Normally, each lockout or tagout device shall be removed from each energy isolating device by the employee who affixed the device. However, in emergency situations where the employee is not available at the facility to remove the devices, the division supervisor may authorize removal of the devices. Reasonable efforts will be made to notify the authorized employee that his devices are being removed or, at the latest, the employee will be informed upon his return to work at the facility.
7. Other Energy Control Program requirements:
a. Outside Personnel (Contractors, etc.): Whenever outside servicing personnel are to be engaged in activities covered by the scope and application of this standard, the on-site division supervisor and the outside employer representative shall inform each other of their respective lockout/tagout procedures. The division supervisor shall ensure that his/her employees understand and comply with restrictions and prohibitions of the outside employer’ s energy control program.
b. Group lockout/tagout: When repair or maintenance is performed by a crew they shall utilize a procedure which affords the employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of personal lockout/tagout devices. In such cases, primary responsibility is vested in one authorized employee for a set number of employees working under the protection of a group lockout or tagout device (such as an operations lock). The authorized employee must ascertain the exposure status of individual group members with regards to the lockout or tagout of the machine or equipment.
8. Inspection and review of lockout/tagout procedures.
a. The Division supervisor and the Safety & Risk Officer conduct inspections of the lockout/tagout procedures no less than annually to ensure that the lockout/tagout procedures and the provisions of this policy are being followed. The inspections will include a review between the inspector and each authorized employee, of that employee’ s responsibilities under the lockout/tagout procedures being reviewed.
b. The division supervisor and Safety & Risk Officer will certify that the periodic inspections have been performed and document the machine or equipment on which the lockout/tagout procedures was being utilized, the date of the inspection, the employees included in the inspection, and the person performing the inspection.
9. Training and Communication:
a. Each authorized employee shall receive training in the recognition of applicable hazardous energy sources, the type and magnitude of the energy present in the workplace and the methods and means necessary for energy isolation and control and the specific lockout/tagout procedures for the equipment and machines they are required to repair or maintain. The division supervisor will ensure that authorized personnel are trained on the specific lockout/tagout procedures before being assigned to work on the machine or equipment to which the procedures apply.
b. Each affected employee or other employee whose work operations are or may be in an area where lockout/tagout procedures are being utilized, shall be instructed about the procedures, and about the prohibition relating to attempts to restart or re-energize machines or equipment which are locked or tagged out.
c. Employee Retraining: Retraining shall be provided for all authorized and affected employees whenever there is a change in their job assignments, a change in machines, equipment or processes that present a new hazard, or when these is a change in lockout/tagout procedures. Additional retraining may also be conducted whenever a periodic inspection reveals, or whenever the division supervisor or Safety & Risk Officer has reason to believe, that there are deviations from or inadequacies in the employees’ knowledge or use of lockout-tagout procedures.
REFERENCES: Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Standard 29CFR 1910.147.
DEPARTMENT: Human Resources
RECISSION: No previous version of this policy has been published. This policy
is effective February 4, 2005 and will remain in effect until rescinded.
LARRY S. MITCHELL
February 4, 2005